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Human testis real picture | Normal testis picture | Rete testis

 Human testis real picture | Normal testis picture | Rete testis 




Human testis real picture | Normal testis picture | Rete testis

Human testis real picture | Normal testis picture | Rete testis

Human testis real picture | Normal testis picture | Rete testis





Definition: what is a testicle?

The testicles (masculine name), two in number, are glands which are located in a bag formed of a thin skin called "scrotum", in the continuity of the base of the penis. They belong to the male reproductive system. Their role is to produce testosterone , the main male hormone (endocrine function), and to constantly produce new sperm (exocrine function), allowing reproduction. The testicles reach their normal size in adulthood: about 2 to 3 cm wide by 4 to 5 cm long.
Human testis real picture | Normal testis picture | Rete testis



Role of the testicles

The testicles have a dual function:


An exocrine function which consists of the production of spermatozoa for reproduction
An endocrine function relating to the production of testosterone which is a male hormone.

Anatomy: where are the testicles located?

In men, the testicles are located outside the pelvis in the scrotum. The development of the testicles in the fetus takes place from 3 months of pregnancy with a peak of intra-fetal testosterone. At this time, the gonads, sex hormones which are not yet differentiated between testicles and ovaries and which are at the level of the abdomen descend gradually towards the scrotum until birth.

Swollen, hard, tender, itchy, sensitive, painful testicle... What symptoms should you worry about? 15%Plagiarism85%UniqueMake it Unique Start New Search
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Swollen, hard, tender, itchy, sensitive, painful testicle... What symptoms should you worry about?
"The first symptom that should be worrying is pain. The testicle should not normally hurt and any sudden or progressive pain should be the subject of a consultation, explains Dr. Faix. And this, in an emergency, when the pain is sharp and sudden in children, adolescents or young adults as it may be a torsion of the spermatic cord - often called "testicular torsion " . don't neglect ". It can, in fact, be indicative of a hernia, a benign tumor or testicular cancer. 

Human testis real picture | Normal testis picture | Rete testis


Swelling of the testicles: causes, pain, what treatments?

The testicles, even and symmetrical organs, can swell. Often of benign origin, this swelling of one or both testicles should lead to consulting a doctor, urologist or andrologist, in order to verify that it is not cancer. Insight from Dr. Muhieddine Khodari, urological surgeon at the Luxembourg Center in Paris.


Pain in the testicles: causes, signs of what, solutions?

Frequent reason for consultation, testicular pain should never be taken lightly. Whether acute or chronic, they must lead to consultation quickly. What are their causes? How to relieve them? Answers with Dr.  Itching of the testicles (pruritus): what to do?
Itching of the private parts is not the prerogative of women. Even men can suffer from it. If this type of itching that doctors call "pruritus" is less common in men than in women, it remains relatively common.


What are testicular exams?

It consists of evaluating the symmetry of the testicles, evaluating its texture, an increase in volume, the spermatic cord to palpate the epididymis which may be prone to infections .

The main investigative technique is ultrasound imaging . " It is a non-invasive, painless examination that does not emit radiation " reassures Dr. Faix. It allows to see where the testicle is, its texture, a possible anomaly or a possible associated hernia...

If self-examination has developed in certain countries such as the Scandinavian countries where testicular cancers are more frequent, Dr. Faix is ​​skeptical: " Self-examination is difficult. This area is sensitive to palpation and this requires some patient education. In case of doubt, increase in volume or feeling of heaviness, consult ."

Torsion of the testicle

Commonly called "testicular torsion" , spermatic cord torsion " most often occurs in adolescents or men who have a slightly long spermatic cord 

testicular infarction ". The testicle is then no longer vascularized, ie the blood no longer circulates there. The pain is extremely sharp and sharp and the testicle swells . “ The only thing to do is to go to the emergency room, ” warns Dr. Faix. " Every hour counts" he explains as well. Indeed, after four to six hours, the testicle necroses and is destroyed
The testicles are also the place of pathologies linked to fertility : " The testicle is small, it does not produce enough testosterone or spermatozoa, etc. " explains Dr. Faix. “ We do not always know the causes but cryptorchidism (i.e. the absence of testicular descent during the development of the fetus or early childhood is a potential cause, as well as varicocele which is a dilation of the veins and which can increase the temperature of the testicles and decrease ". Orchitis occurring during mumps is also a cause of infertility in adulthood, hence the importance of vaccination.



Atrophy of the testicles: cause, treatment, is it reversible?

This anomaly can be congenital or occur later. Because it impacts fertility, it must be treated as soon as possible. Explanations and advice with Dr Monique Quillard, general practitioner.


Epididymitis: symptoms, treatment, duration, scheme
Affecting the testicles, epididymitis is an infection and inflammation of the epididymis, a place of transition used for the maturation and storage of spermatozoa before their migration to the prostate. Symptoms and treatments with Dr. Maxime Vallée, urologist.


Shock on a testicle: what to do?

The occurrence of a shock in the bursa can cause damage to one or even both testicles, which can cause serious complications. What are the emergency symptoms? The risks ? Exams to do? The point with Dr. Louis Cortes, general practitioner in Paris.


Abnormalities of the testicles: causes, when to consult?

The testicles can suffer from more or less serious abnormalities and cause pain. Torsion, atrophy, bad position, swelling... What are the most frequent problems? How to treat them? When to consult? Answers with Dr. Vincent Hupertan, urological surgeon.


Testicular descent: age, abnormality, operation

The descent of the testicles takes place from the abdomen towards the bursae during fetal life and until the age of 6 months on average. What to do in case of abnormality or undescended testicle? What are the treatments ? When to consider an operation? Explanations by Dr. Paula Borrego, pediatric surgeon, in Paris.


Testicle going up (elevator): pain, cause, treatment

The testicles are normally present in the bursae where they have migrated at the end of pregnancy, or even shortly after birth. But in some cases, they oscillate in the stock market. This is called a "testicle lift". Symptoms, causes and treatments with Dr. Paula Borrego, pediatric surgeon.

Testicular operations


Lifting of the testicles: price, what results before/after?
The lift of the testicles (more precisely of the scrotum) is a cosmetic surgery procedure aimed at raising drooping testicles and thus rejuvenating the penis. Who can do this operation? How much does it cost ? Answers with Dr. Vincent Masson, plastic and aesthetic surgeon.

Normal testicle size 

Although the size is difficult to estimate due to their shape and texture, a testicle measures approximately 3 cm high, 2 cm wide and 5 cm deep . “ But it is above all up to the urologist, during the clinical examination, to determine if the size is normal, to see the symmetry of the testicles ” specifies Dr. Faix. "Only ultrasound can give an exact measurement and there can be a wide variety of sizes between men without this always representing an anomaly."

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